What is Constipation?

Digestive Health
By Dr Saravana.K
Constipation is caused by infrequent bowel movements or difficult passage of stools. What’s considered normal frequency for bowel movements varies widely. In general, however, you’re probably experiencing constipation if you pass fewer than three stools a week, and your stools are hard and dry. Constipation most commonly occurs when waste or stool moves too slowly through the digestive tract, causing it to become hard and dry.
Normally, the waste products of digestion (stool) are propelled through your intestines by muscle contractions. In the large intestine (colon), most of the water and salt in this waste mixture are reabsorbed because they’re essential for many of your body’s functions. However, when there is not enough fluid or fibre-rich food in your diet — or if the colon’s muscle contractions are slow — the stool hardens, dries and passes through your colon too slowly. This is the root cause of constipation. You may also experience constipation if the muscles you use to move your bowels aren’t properly coordinated.
A number of factors can cause an intestinal slowdown, including:

Inadequate amounts of fluid intake and fibre in diet
Ignoring the urge or delaying until later
Lack of physical activity
Irritable bowel syndrome
Changes in lifestyle or routine, including pregnancy, aging and travel
Frequent use or misuse of laxatives
Specific diseases, such as stroke, diabetes, thyroid disease and Parkinson’s disease
Problems with the colon and rectum, such as intestinal obstruction or diverticulosis
Certain medications
Hormonal disturbances, such as an underactive thyroid gland
Anal fissures and haemorrhoids, producing a spasm of the anal sphincter muscle
Loss of body salts through vomiting or diarrhoea
Injuries to the spinal cord, which can affect the nerves that lead to and from the intestine.

Fortunately, most cases of constipation are temporary. Simple lifestyle changes, such as getting more exercise, drinking more fluids and eating a high-fibre diet, can go a long way toward alleviating constipation. Constipation may also be treated with over-the-counter laxatives. Constipation may signal more-serious medical conditions, such as colorectal cancer, hormonal disturbances or autoimmune diseases.
When to see a doctor?

Unexplained onset of constipation or change in bowel habits
Symptoms are severe and last longer than three weeks
Bowel movements occurring more than three days apart, despite corrective changes in diet or exercise
Intense abdominal pain
Blood in your stool                                                                                                                            
Constipation that alternates with diarrhoea
Rectal pain
Thin, pencil-like stools
Unexplained weight loss, fever, lethargy

Your doctor or nurse will decide which tests you should have based on your age, other symptoms, and individual situation.

There are lots of tests, but you may not need any.
Rectal exam – Your doctor will look at the outside of your anus. He or she will also use a finger to feel inside the opening.
Colonoscopy – For this test, the doctor puts a thin tube into your anus. Then, he or she threads the tube into your large intestine. The large intestine is also called the colon. The tube has a camera attached to it, so the doctor can look inside your intestine. During these tests, the doctor can also take samples of tissue to look at under a microscope.

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