Dissolve the coarse sea salt with the water in a large bowl. Add in the cabbage slices and toss to mix. Press top so the liquid will seep through the cabbage.
Leave cabbage in mixture for minimum 1 hour or until leaves have wilted. Toss the cabbage to ensure even distribution. Leave for another hour.
Meanwhile, boil the anchovies with 2 cups of water. Bring to boil and simmer until reduced to 1 cup. Remove from heat and let cool.
Remove cabbage from the solution and rinse thoroughly with running water. Drain well. Use paper towels to dry if necessary.
For the Paste: blend the onion, garlic, ginger, pear and rice until smooth. Add the anchovy stock and pulse blender till well combined.
Transfer paste into a medium mixing bowl and add the rest of ingredients (C). Leave for at least 10 mins so that the chilli flakes will absorb the moisture. Do not wash your blender!
In a large airtight container, combine well-drained cabbage, spring onion, and leek or onion. Add two-thirds of kimchi paste and combine well. Add the remainder paste for additional colour and to your taste.
Add salt to taste. Do not be concerned if it is a little saltier than expected. This helps with the fermentation process.
Pour half cup of water into your blending container and mix in remainder paste. Pour over your vegetables.
Let it sit at room temperature for 1 day to begin the fermentation process, then refrigerate and consume within the next 1 to 2 months.
In a large stockpot, cover the beef shanks with water and bring to a boil. Once boiling, immediately drain the water and set the beef aside. (This step helps remove impurities to make a clear soup.)
Add the parboiled beef, all the ingredients (A) and seasoning (B) in a large pot. Boil on high heat.
Bring the mixture to a boil, reduce to low heat, and simmer for approximately 2 hours, or until the beef is tender. Turn off the heat. Let meat sit in the broth for another hour.
Remove the beef to a cutting board. Pour the stock through a basket sieve into another pot. Discard the fat and vegetable solids. Slice the beef and return to the stock. Skim the fat from the surface, and return the soup to boil.
To serve, bring a large pot of water to a boil. Boil the noodles for 2 minutes. Dish out.
Divide noodles into bowls. Ladle the beef and hot broth into the bowls. Garnish with cut salted green mustard, chilli, scallions and serve hot.